Cincinnati is a city located in the southwest end of Ohio, the United States. It is located on the Ohio River, which borders the state of Columbia, about 170km southwest, and Kentucky. The population is 296,943 (2010 Census), the third largest city in the state after Columbus and Cleveland. Centered on Hamilton County, which has a county office in Cincinnati, there are 2,137,667 urban areas that straddle 16 counties of Ohio, Kentucky Indiana and the three states of Ohio, and the metropolitan area, which includes the two small urban areas, has a population of 2,197,197 (all 2010 census).
City of Cincinnati
|Nickname: The Queen City, Cincy|
|Slogan: "Juncta Juvant (Latin) Unity is power."|
Top: a city in Cincinnati in Hamilton County
Bottom: the position of Hamilton County in Ohio
|City||206.01 km2 (79.54 mi2)|
|land||201.86 km2 (77.94 mi2)|
|water surface||4.14 km2 (1.60 mi2)|
|urban area||10,798 km2 (4,169 mi2)|
|Elevation||168 m (551 ft)|
|population||(as of 2010)|
|population density||1,470.7 people/km2 (3,807.0 people/mi2)|
|equal time||Eastern Standard Time (UTC-5)|
|daylight saving time||Eastern Daylight Time (UTC-4)|
|Official website: http://cincinnati-oh.gov/|
It was established in 1788, and two years later, the name Cincinnati was given from the Cincinnati Association. From the first half to the middle of the 19th century, Cincinnati developed as a meat processing center and a river port city on the Ohio River, and in 1850 grew to be the sixth largest city in the United States. However, in the latter half of the 19th century, when the main character of transportation moved from a steamboat to a railway, Cincinnati was overtaken by Chicago and St. Louis, which have grown at a high level as a joint node, and although Cincinnati grew, its relative position declined. Even after that, the population continued to grow slowly until the middle of the 20th century, and in 1950, the population exceeded 500,000, but after that, the number has decreased.
Still, Cincinnati remains one of the economic, transportation, education and cultural centers of the region. Seven companies in Fortune 500, including Croggers, Procter and Gamble, have their headquarters in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. Three interstate expressways meet on land routes, with Cincinnati Northern Kentucky International Airport, one of Delta Air's hub airports and one of the DHL's superhubs, as an empty gateway. The campus of Cincinnati University and Xavier University is located north of the downtown. MLB's Cincinnati Reds and NFL's Cincinnati Bengals are both based on the Ohio River in Cincinnati. There are many cultural facilities that show the length of history as a cultural city, such as the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Music Hall home to Cincinnati Opera, the Taft Museum, which is the residence of President from Cincinnati, William Taft's half brother, and so on, which are the oldest in the United States.
Cincinnati was founded in 1788 on the north bank of the Ohio River by three settlers, Massias Denman, Robert Patterson and Israel Ldrow. Then John Filson bought a third of an 800 acre (323ha) settlement from Denman and named it Rosentiville. Two years later, in 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the Governor-General of the Northwestern Territory, was renamed Cincinnati after the name of the Cincinnati Association, which George Washington served as the chairman and he himself belonged to. The first immigrants were mostly German, one of whom David Ziegler, who was a St. Clair's successor to Fort Washington, was the first mayor of Cincinnati in 1802. In 1819, Cincinnati was officially incorporated as a city.
The early Cincinnati developed as a meat-processing center, especially a pork-processing center and was called Porkopolis (the capital of pork). Cincinnati, a river port of the Ohio River, developed as a base for water transportation where steam ships visited from the early 19th century, as well as a base for steamship production, and the Miami-Erie Canal, which was built in 1825, accelerated its growth. The Miami Erie Canal runs northward from the Great Miami River, a tributary of the Ohio River, and was opened in 1827 to Midtown on the north side, and then extended to Dayton in 1830, and to Toledo on the Lake Erie Coast in 1840. In addition, the construction of Little Miami Railway was approved in 1836, the entire line was extended to Springfield in 1846, and connected to the Mad River and Lake Erie Railway, which opened up to Springfield in 1849, leading to a lake port in the Sandusky Bay of Lake Erie. In 1853, the railway transportation to the capital Columbus was established by connecting with the Columbus and Zenia Railway at Zenia, a midway station of the Little Miami Railway. Commerce also developed from an early stage, and hotels, restaurants and bars were built in the city to meet the needs of settlers heading west down the Ohio River, and in 1837, Proctor and Gamble was established. In the midst of these rapid growth in the city, Cincinnati residents began to call the city Queen City (Queen City). In 1850, Cincinnati had a population of 115,435, and it was growing to the sixth largest city in the United States after New York (515,547), Baltimore (169,054), Boston (136,881), Philadelphia (121,376), and New Orleans (116,375).
On the eve of the American Civil War, the other side of the Ohio River became the hub of the Southern Slave State, and the Cincinnati, an important hub of the Metro Line, to further north the escaped slaves crossing the Ohio River in search of freedom, and the center of the abolition of slavery. Harriet Beecher Stow met a fugitive slave while he lived in Cincinnati and based on this story he wrote "Uncle Tom's Hut." Levi Koffin moved from Indiana to Cincinnati in 1847 and made it a hub for the abolition of slavery.
However, at the same time, there were also many who tried to capture and send back the fugitive slaves to the south, and many who were against the abolition of slavery. The local economy of Cincinnati during this period was greatly supported by trade with Slave State. This is why ethnic violence frequently broke out in Cincinnati in the middle of the 19th century. In 1829, the anti-slavery protestors attacked black people in the city and became violent. As a result, 1,200 black people left the city and escaped to Canada. The riots and evacuation sparked a nationwide discussion, and in 1830, the first black congress was held in Philadelphia. In 1836, 700 anti-slavery protesters organized a group to attack the black settlements and destroyed the headquarters of the weekly magazine The Philanthropist, which is an anti-slavery editor. The same kind of riot occurred in 1841. When the Fugitive Slavery Law was enacted in 1850, such tensions intensified.
During the American Civil War, Cincinnati served as an important logistics hub for the Northern Army due to its geographical conditions, and a headquarters in the Ohio Military District was established. In the suburbs, Camp Denison was set up as a base for collecting, training and treating wounded soldiers. Meanwhile, Cincinnati was a great target for the Southern Army. In September 1862, Henry Heath, the Vice Commander of the Southern Army, planned to invade Cincinnati with about 8,000 soldiers. However, in addition to about 25,000 Ohio troops led by Major General Lou Wallace of the Northern Army, about 60,000 militia, called Squirrel Hunters (Lishunter), gathered at the command of David Todd, the Governor of the State, defended the town and withdrew the Heath troops. Thanks to the successful defense of Cincinnati, Wallace was immediately praised as a hero of the region.
When the Civil War ended, railway traffic was remarkably growing instead of steam ships, but many of the main lines were connected to the east and the northwest. The Cincinnati Municipal Government recognized the need for railroads that not only supply the natural resources of the south in the increasingly industrialized Midwest but also provide access to the post-war recovery-oriented southern market and passed a bill to construct the Cincinnati Southern Railway in 1869. The railroad was opened 11 years later in 1880, and Cincinnati and Chattanooga in Tennessee Province were connected.
In Cincinnati in the latter half of the 19th century, in addition to meat processing, industries such as iron making, fiber and wood processing developed. In 1889, a street car, which was originally a carriage, was electrified. However, around this time, Chicago and St. Louis, which became the joint nodes of the transcontinental railroad, grew rapidly, and Cleveland, a heavy industrial city including iron making, emerged in the state, so Cincinnati continued to grow and lost its relative position. Still, up until 1900, Cincinnati was one of the 10 largest cities in the United States. During the Great Depression in 1929, the economic damage suffered by Cincinnati was offset by the comeback of river traffic due to the fact that it was cheaper than the railway, and as a result, the damage was only minor compared to other big cities in the United States.
In the 20th century, skyscrapers were also built in Cincinnati. Union Central Tower completed in 1913 (currently named: The PNC Tower was the fifth tallest building in the world at that time with 31 stories and a height of 151m. In 1931, Khalu Tower was completed although it was forced to change its design to reduce construction costs due to the Great Depression.
The population of Cincinnati continued to increase, although it was slow in the middle of the 20th century, and in 1950 it reached its peak with 503,998 people. However, since then, like many big cities across the United States, especially in the East and Middle West, the population of Cincinnati has fallen because of a population drain to the suburbs due to the development of expressway networks.
Since the 1970s, Cincinnati has been trying to revitalize downtown. In 1971, a Sky Walk was set up to connect Fountain Square, the center of downtown and the Convention Center three blocks west of it, so that people could travel downtown without worrying about weather and street traffic jams. This Skywalk was continuously extended from the 1970s to the 1980s, and its entire length was 2.1km in 1997. However, in the 2000s, the existence of Skywalk has reduced the number of pedestrians moving up and down the ground, which has been pointed out to be a hindrance to the activation of downtown areas, and partly because of the demolition and repair of buildings and facilities along the route, parts of Skywalk were destroyed and they came to be interrupted. In 2003, Cincinnati Center Development Public Corporation (3CDC) was established with the mission to rebuild downtown and the Over the Line area adjacent to the north.
minutes 45 seconds west longitude. It is located about 170km southwest from Columbus, about 180km southeast from Indianapolis, about 470km southeast from Chicago. The city faces the Ohio River, the border with Kentucky, about 35km east of the Indiana border.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Cincinnati City has a total area of 206.01km2 (79.54mi2). Of them, 201.86km2 (77.94mi2) is land and 4.14km2 (1.60mi2) is the water area. The water area accounts for 2.01% of the total area. The area is 11,794km2, covering 16 counties in the center of Hamilton County, southwestern Ohio, northern Kentucky and southeastern Indiana.
Cincinnati, located on the north bank of the Ohio River Basin in the southwest of Ohio, is considered to be the Midwest in the United States of America, but is categorized as the northern edge of Appland South in terms of geographical features, and is included in the Bluegrass region as in the northern part of Kentucky. The region is a limestone geology with smooth hills across which the rivers, including the Ohio River, carve a valley, 120-150m deep. Although Cincinnati's central area extends through a basin-like valley formed by the Ohio River and is flat, the surrounding residential area stretches up to the hilly area, where there are many ups and downs. In the Mount Adams area, just east of the central area, the hills nestle up to the Ohio River and overlooking the Ohio River. The height above sea level is 168m in the center of the city, but the height above sea level is approximately 200-280m.
Because of these geographical features, there are as many as 400 city-run sidewalks on the slopes of the hill in the city, and they are used for jogging and hiking as well as for practical use. From the latter half of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century, five ink lines were operated in Cincinnati.
|Rain and Temperature (Description)|
The climate of Cincinnati is a mild part of the Midwest, and in summer it is as hot and humid as the South, but in comparison to the cities of the east coast at the same latitude it is a severe winter cold and an inland climate. The warmest July temperatures reach 24°C, the daytime highs reached 30°C. The coldest January average temperature is 0.5°C below freezing, and the average minimum temperature is 5°C below freezing. The annual rainfall is approximately 70-110mm per month, and approximately 1,060mm per year. In addition, snow falls in the winter months, although it is very small compared with the Cleveland and the like on the northern part of the state and Lake Erie. The amount of snow from December to March is about 5-12cm per month and about 37.5cm per winter. In the climate division of Keppen, Cincinnati belongs to a warm wet climate (Cfa).
|Mean Temperature (°C)||-0.5||1.4||6.4||32.5||17.7||22.4||24.6||23.7||19.9||13.5||7.3||1.7||12.6|
City Overview and Architecture
Although the streets of Cincinnati are relatively well-defined in downtown areas, the surrounding area is crowded with undulating terrain. The east-west street is divided into E (east) and W (west) on the border of Bine Street. On the other hand, there is no distinction between the south and the north on the street running north-south. There are several streets with numbers on the east-west streets, and the farther they leave the Ohio River, the greater the number.
At the center of the downtown area is Fountain Square, surrounded by Bain Street, 5th Street, Fifth Third Center and Fifth Third Tower. This square was built on the site of a butcher in 1871, and in 2005, a large-scale repair was carried out by 3CDC as part of the redevelopment of downtown. As its name suggests, a fountain called Tyler Davidson Fountain is situated in the center of Fountain Square. The fountain pond is a green granite with To the People of Cincinnati carved. The statue of the arms-spread goddess, standing in the middle of the fountain, named Genius of Water, was made by Munich sculptor Ferdinand Freiherr von Miller. In the winter season, a skating rink is provided in front of Tyler Davidson Fountain (on the 5th Street side).
The tallest building in Cincinnati is the 41-story Great American Tower at Queen City Square, at the southeast corner of the downtown area, at the northeast corner of Shikamoa Street and 3rd Street. Completed in 2011, this skyscraper was designed by Gyou Obata, a Japanese American architect, and built on the roof of Senpo KOHATA, and features a tiara, inspired by the Tiara of Diana, which is nicknamed Queen City, which is associated with the city. The tiara is made of steel and is 40 meters high and 400t in weight. Next to the Great American Tower at Queen City Square is the 49-story, 175m-high Kallu Tower, which stands on a block adjacent to the southwest of Fountain Square and serves as a symbol of Cincinnati. Built in the then fashionable Art Deco style, the building was the tallest in Cincinnati for 80 years until the Great American Tower at Queen City Square was completed. The Kallu Tower was registered as a National Register of Historic Places in 1982 and as a National Historic Place in 1994.
The Over the Line area, to the north of the downtown, is the oldest and largest historic district in Cincinnati, and has a history of the Old St. Mary's Church, one of the parish churches in the Catholic Archdiocese of Cincinnati, built in 1842. In the 362.5 acre (1.47km2) area, about 1,100 historical buildings of architectural styles such as Greek Revival, Italian Nate, and Queen Ann remain in existence. Over the Line area was registered as a National Register of Historic Places in 1983.
Cincinnati adopts the City Manager system. The City Manager is the head of the city's administration and has about 6,300 employees. The city assembly, the city's legislative body, consists of nine councilors, whose term of office is four years and is limited to two consecutive elections. The mayor is the official mayor of the city and serves as a representative of the city in various places. In the city council, the mayor may attend all of the meetings and convene special meetings, but he does not have the right to vote and has the right to refuse. The mayor will also appoint vice mayors and mayors of the city's assembly from among the city members. The mayor has the right to appoint the City Manager, but in order for the City Manager candidates to actually be elected, the five City Councilors need to vote in favor of the majority. The top nine councilors will be elected by the city. The mayor is elected by a vote from all the cities, apart from the city assembly members.
It took a long way before the Cincinnati municipal election became the present form. Until 1924, the City Assembly of Cincinnati had adopted a constituency system. However, from the 1880s to 1920s, under the Republican machine and George B. Cox, who was a local political boss, the city council was dominated by a single Republican party over the electoral system and was a breeding ground for corruption. Then, in 1924, another Republican, Murray Season Good, carried out the city government reform, and at the same time, the electoral system was abolished and the city manager system was introduced. From 1924 to 1957, the city councilors were elected by the proportional representation system, but from 1957, the top nine candidates were elected. At that time, the mayor was elected by the city council, but in 1987, the top-elected person was automatically elected as mayor, and in 1999, the mayor was elected separately from the city council.
The Cincinnati Fire and Disaster Department was the first full-scale Occupational Fire and Disaster Management Department established in 1853 across the United States. The agency has deployed fire stations in 26 locations across the city to cover the entire city, fighting fires, ambulance services, second life-saving procedures, arson investigations, fire-prevention and hazardous materials accident handling.
The Cincinnati City Police has about 1,000 police officers and 125 civilian personnel, divided into three units, patrol, investigation and support.
Although the number of crimes in Cincinnati has been decreasing as the years went by after a sharp increase in the 2001 riots, it cannot be said that the public order is not good. In a survey conducted by CQ Press, Morgan Quitnot, Cincinnati often enters the Worst 25 "Dangerous Cities in the United States." The company's 2013 survey reported that Cincinnati is the 20th most dangerous city in the country. There is a high incidence of killings, and the annual number of deaths per 100,000 people is around 20. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 2011 data, the basis of the above-mentioned Morgan Quitnot survey, shows that 20.5 cases per 100,000 people are higher than the U.S. average (4.7 cases per 100,000 people), which is more than four times higher than the U.S. average. Compared to other major cities in the state, Cincinnati's security is much better than Cleveland and worse than Columbus.
However, as in many cities across the United States, there are only a few areas with high crime counts. In Cincinnati, East Westwood, South Fairmount, North Fairmount and English Woods, both of which are downtown and to the northwest, constitute a crime-prone area, which accounts for 30% of the city in all five districts. Among them, the four areas in the Midwest, except downtown, share the common characteristics of low-income residents, such as the housing complex called Section 8 for low-income people. Up until the mid-2000s, the Over-the-Line area was the worst crime-prone area in the whole city, where violent drug-related crimes frequently occur, but since then, crimes in the area have drastically decreased thanks to the successful redevelopment of the city police and the 3CDC cooperation.
The City of Cincinnati has five headquarters in Fortune 500, including Krogers, the world's largest supermarket chain with more than 2,600 stores in 34 states in the United States, and Procter and Gamble, a general consumer goods manufacturing and trading company that sells products in more than 180 countries. Fifth Third Bank, one of Ohio's most important banks, has its headquarters next to Fountain Square. Cincinnati also has a branch of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
In addition, the Kentucky state of Cobington has a head-office of Ashland, a chemical and petrochemical conglomerate, and General Cable Co., the company's main office in Highland Heights. Furthermore, Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America, a Toyota subsidiary in the United States of America, is headquartered in Arranger, which is close to Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport.
|Fortune 500 company headquartered in Cincinnati|
|rank||Company Name||industry||head office location|
|31||Procter & Gamble||general consumer goods||Cincinnati|
|361||Fifth Third Bancorp||bank||Cincinnati|
|405||general cable||wire||Highland Heights|
The commercial airport, which serves as the gateway to Cincinnati, is located about 15km southwest of the downtown and is located at Hebron CDP, Kentucky, the Cincinnati Northern Kentucky International Airport (IATA: CVG). The airport, one of Delta Air's hub airports, is currently carrying direct flights to 40 domestic and overseas cities, including Charles de Gaulle Airport in Paris, and American Airlines and United Airlines both have deliveries from the hub airport. In addition, the airport is one of the three most important "superhubs" that DHL has in the world. It is also an important airport for passengers and air cargo.
Cincinnati Union Terminal is located northwest of downtown. This Art Deco-style station building was built in 1933 and was designated as a National Register of Historic Places in 1972. At this station, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the New York Central Railway, and the Pennsylvania Railroad used to run, and at its peak, more than 200 trains a day arrived at and departed from the station; however, the station was no longer used in 1972 after the decline of railway traffic from the 1950s to the 1960s. After that, the station was renovated in 1990 and restored, and today, Amtrak's long-distance overnight train, Cardinal, which connects New York and Chicago southward, makes stops for West and East three every week.
The Greyhound bus terminal is located in the northeast of the downtown area, and it carries long-distance buses bound for Columbus Cleveland, Louisville Nashville, Indianapolis Chicago, Dayton Toledo Detroit, Lexington Knoxville and many other destinations.
Public transportation in Cincinnati is exclusively provided by route buses. METRO, a route bus network of the Southwest Ohio Area Transportation Bureau (SORTA), has Local Route 30 and Express Route 19, mainly covering Cincinnati City and Hamilton County. On the Kentucky side, the Northern Kentucky Transportation Bureau (TANK) operates a route bus network of Local Route 12 and Express Route 15 around Cobington. Also, Route 2, Express Bus Co., Ltd., of the Clarmont Transport Connection (CTC), located east of Hamilton County, connects with downtown Cincinnati. In downtown and over the Line areas, a street car with a total length of 5.8km is being constructed in order to start operating in September 2016.
In Cincinnati, there are three interstate highways: I-71, I-74, and I-75. I-71 is a highway between Louisville and Cleveland, a short interstate highway, but in Ohio it's the most important one that connects the three major cities of Cincinnati, Columbus and Cleveland. I-74 is the southern starting and ending point of Cincinnati, a highway that runs through Indianapolis and Arbana Champagne, Illinois to the eastern Davenport of Iowa. I-75 is a north-south arterial railroad linking Michigan to Florida. Within Ohio, it connects Cincinnati, Dayton, and Toledo with the major cities of western Ohio. I-275, a branch line of I-75, is an access road to the Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport, a circular line running through the Cincinnati metropolitan area. I-471, a branch of the I-71, is a radiation heading south-east from downtown, joining I-275 at Highland Heights. In addition, Norwood Lateral Express Way (Route 562), which connects I-75 and I-71, runs in the northeastern part of the city, and Ronald Reagan Cross County Highway (Route 126), which connects I-275·I-75·I-71, runs in the northern part of the city, forming a part of the expressway network of Cincinnati.
The University of Cincinnati has an uptown campus of 194 acres (785,000m2) in the Clifton Heights/University Heights/Fairview area, about four kilometers north of downtown. Founded in 1819, Cincinnati College and Cincinnati Medical School were the predecessor of Cincinnati University, which was transferred to the state completely in 1977 and incorporated into the Ohio University system. The school has 11 departments, with approximately 32,500 undergraduate students and 11,000 graduate students, and provides over 100 major programs for faculties and graduate master's programs and over 70 major programs for doctoral programs. The university was the birthplace of Coop's education and was ranked fourth in the United States in 2014. In addition, the school has received a high reputation in pharmaceutical and medical science, which is ranked 50th in the United States. The ranking of US News & World Report's universities is ranked 150th among all the universities in the United States. Also, BearCats, a sports team from the same school, belongs to the American Athletic Conference of NCAA Division I (football is FBS/former I-A), and compete for eight boys and nine girls.
Xavier University has a campus of 190 acres (769,000m2) in the North Avondale area, about eight kilometers northeast of downtown. As can be seen from the fact that the school was founded in 1831 and the name of Francisco XAVIER, it was a private university of the Society of Jesus in Catholicism and established an exchange relationship with Sophia University, a private university of the Society of Jesus in Japan. Centered on the Faculty of Liberal Arts and Liberal Arts, it has three departments, the Faculty of Management and the Faculty of Social, Health and Education, and it provides 90 major programs and 55 minor minor program, and provides a small-scale education system of 12:1 for students to professors. The school has about 4,500 students in the faculty and about 2,000 students in the graduate school. The ranking of US News & World Report's universities is among the top 10 in the Midwest's Regional Universities. The school's sports team, Musketeers, belongs to the Big East Conference of NCAA Division I (without football), and compete for eight men's and eight women's events. Especially in men's basketball, the school and the University of Cincinnati have established a rival relationship called "Cross Town Chute-out."
At Oxford, in the north, the University of Miami, a mid-sized state university with a 100th largest overall rating in the United States, and Highland Heights, on the Kentucky side, the state's North Kentucky University has a campus, respectively.
The K-12 program in Cincinnati is supported mainly by public schools under the jurisdiction of the Cincinnati Public School District (CPS). The school district has 39 elementary schools (kindergarten, first to sixth grade), 12 junior and senior high schools (7 to 12 grade), and four elementary, junior and junior high and senior high schools, and has about 33,000 children and students. The Catholic Archdiocese of Cincinnati has ten high schools in Cincinnati City (of which two are boys' schools and four are girls' schools). In Hamilton County as a whole, about a quarter of the students and children attend private schools, the highest percentage in the United States of America, after St. Louis County, Missouri. On the other hand, many families that have children and students at public schools are poor, and under the control of the CPS, more than 70% of all children and students are in poor families. On the other hand, there are many excellent public schools that belong to different school districts from CPS in the periphery and suburbs, which contribute to the outflow of population from the inner city to the periphery and the suburbs in search of a better educational environment.
The library system of Cincinnati is among the best in the United States in terms of the number of books. The National Library of Cincinnati Hamilton County boasts about 8.82 million books in total, the third largest public library system in the United States after the Boston Public Library and the New York Public Library. In addition, the University of Cincinnati owns about 4.38 million books, and the Ohio State University (about 6.16 million books) is the second largest university in its collection.
Scenic, art and cultural facilities
The Cincinnati Museum is located in the Mount Adams area on a hill to the east of downtown. The museum was established in 1881 by the Women's Art Museum Association established in Cincinnati after the success of the Philadelphia World Exposition in 1876 and opened in 1886. The collection of the museum covers 6,000 years from ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome to modern art, and covers not only Europe but also the Middle East, the Far East, Africa, and the Americas, and its genres range from paintings, sculptures, crafts, photographs, and textiles, and its number exceeds 65,000.
The Taft Museum is located in the triangle of the junction of I-71 and I-471 at the east end of downtown. The Paradian architecture was originally built in 1820 as the residence of Martin Baumu, a business man who also served as the mayor of Cincinnati. From 1873 to 1929, Charles Phelps Taft, an older paternal half-brother of the 27th President William Taft, and a member of the House of Representatives from Ohio, and his wife Anna lived there. William accepted the run for the presidential election in the residence of Portico in 1908. After that, the paintings collected by the couple were opened to the general public in 1929, and the museum opened as the Taft Museum in 1932 after the couple died. The museum houses old European paintings, American paintings of the 19th century, porcelain ceramics, enamel plates of French Limoges, and 17-19th century clocks, and so on. The building was registered as National Register of Historical Properties in 1973 and as National Historical Health Products in 1976.
Other famous museums and art galleries in Cincinnati include the Contemporary Art Center, which started from the Modern Art Corner of the Cincinnati Museum, and opened in 1964 independently in downtown Tokyo, as well as the National Subway Freedom Center, which opened in 2004 and which, through the exhibition of items related to the activities of the subway, expresses the importance of freedom and human rights. Inside the Cincinnati Union Terminal, the Cincinnati Museum of History, the Museum of Natural History, the Duke Energy Children's Museum and the OmniMax Theater are also located as the Cincinnati Museum Center. At the Newport Aquarium, located in Newport, North Kentucky, on the other side of the Ohio River, IUCN is conducting the breeding and breeding of Chino Mesa, which is designated as a critical species.
The Cincinnati Music Hall is located north of the downtown Over the Line area. The Concert Hall is based on the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra established in 1895, which has the fifth longest history in the United States, the Cincinnati Pop Orchestra established in 1977, the Cincinnati Pop Orchestra established in 1920, the Cincinnati Opera established in New York, and the Cincinnati Ballet. In May every year, the Cincinnati May Festival, a chorus festival that has been held since 1873, is held at this music hall. In addition, not only classical music, but also performances of pop, rock, jazz, and blues have been held at the concert hall, and so far Frank Sinatra, Miles Davis, Bruce Springsteen, Prince, Elton John, Janis Joplin, B.B. King, Duran Duran, Eric Clapton and others have been held here. The Venetian Gothic style building of this music hall was built in 1878 and was registered as a National Register of Historic Places in 1970 and as a National Historic Place in 1974.
In Cincinnati, two of the four major North American professional sports leagues: the MLB, NFL, NBA and NHL have teams: the MLB and NFL.
The baseball Reds are a team originating from Cincinnati Red Stockings, which became the first professional baseball team in 1869. The Reds have won the World Series five times in 1919, 1940, 1975, 1976 and 1990. In the 1970s, under the great general Sparky Anderson, the golden age with Johnny BENCH, Pete ROSE, Joe Morgan, Tony Perez, Dave Conceptuion, George Foster, Ken Griffey and Caesar Geronimo was called the Big Red Machine. During the seven years between 1970 and 1976, Reds won five district titles, four league titles, and a series of World Series titles with an average of 98 wins in one season (162 official games). On September 11, 1985, Rose, who was also a player-manager, hit his 4,192nd hit in a game against San Diego Padres at Riverfront Stadium which was his home ground at that time, and broke the record for the most hits in the Major League Baseball (MLB) in total. The Reds belong to the National League Middle Area and are based in the Great American Ball Park on the downtown Ohio River which opened in 2003.
The football Bengals was established by Paul Brown, the first coach of Cleveland Browns, and was a team in 1968 created in the AFL expansion. After the AFL joined the NFL, the Bengals won two conferences in 1981 and 1988, and entered the 16th and 23rd Super Bowl, but they were defeated by the San Francisco Fortunerers and had no experience winning the Super Bowl. The Bengals belong to the AFC North District and are based in Paul Brown Stadium, which was opened in 2000, with the name of Brown. Before the completion of Paul Brown Stadium, Bengals were based in the same Riverfront Stadium as Reds.
In addition, Cincinnati is based in Cincinnati Cyclones, ECHL, the third division of ice hockey. The Cyclones won the ECHL finals, the Kerry Cup twice in 2008 and 2010. Cyclones are affiliated with the higher AHL's Milwaukee Admirals and San Antonio Ranppage, and the higher NHL's Nashville Predator and Florida Panthers, respectively. The Cyclones are based in the U.S. Bank Arena, an indoor stadium next to the Great American Ball Park.
In Cincinnati, the Cincinnati Masters, a professional female tennis player, has been held since 1899. The tournament is a game of Masters 1,000 for men and Premier 5 for women. Since 1979, the tournament has been held in Mason, a suburb of the northeast.
|Major Professional Sports in Cincinnati|
|Cincinnati Reds||Baseball||MLB Na League Middle Area||Great American Ball Park|
|Cincinnati Bengals||Football||NFL, AFC North||Paul Brown Stadium|
|FC Cincinnati||Football||MLS, Eastern Conference||Nippart Stadium|
Parks and recreation
Eden Park is located in the northern part of Mount Adams. Within the 186 acres (753,000m2), the Cincinnati Art Museum, the Cincinnati Playhouse in the Park, which won the Tony Award for Best Local Theater, the Season's Good Pavilion, an outdoor theater, and the Art Deco-style clone greenhouse are located. The water tower, called Elsinore Arch, at the western end of the park, was built in 1883 in the motif of Elsinore Castle, the stage of Hamlet, and was registered as a National Register of Historic Places in 1980. On the edge of Twin Lakes, an artificial lake in the northeast part of the park, there is a statue of ujo of Ukai, which is a traditional fishing method in the Nagara-gawa River flowing through the city, which was given from Gifu City, one of the sister cities of Cincinnati.
The Cincinnati Zoo is located in the Avondale area, north of Cincinnati University. The zoo, which opened in 1875, is the second oldest zoo in the United States. Several facilities including the oldest facility in the park, 'House of Reptiles' (originally 'House of Monkeys'), were registered as 'Cincinnati Zoo Historic Buildings' in 1987 as a National Register of Historic Monuments and National Historic Buildings. One of the facilities, the bird's house, had the last one of the extinct passenger pigeon and the Carolina parakeet. Today, the park has raised, cultivated and exhibited more than 500 animals and more than 3,000 plants.
35km from downtown to northeast, and Mason, King's Island, the best amusement park in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. The park has more than 100 attractions including 15 roller coasters, and it also operates 33 acres (134,000m2) of water parks in summer.
A typical dish of Cincinnati is Cincinnati Chile. Seasoned with cinnamon and clove, this unique Chile was invented in 1922 by Macedonian immigrant Tom Athanas Kiratov. The soft-eyed spaghetti is called 'Two-way,' the one with shredded cheddar cheese, 'Three-way,' the one with minced onions or chili beans (or kidny beans), '4-way,' and the one with both are called '5-way.' A small cracker called oyster cracker is sometimes added. Also, the chili in hot dogs instead of spaghetti is called "coney."
On the other hand, since many German immigrants came to Cincinnati in the early period, the food culture in the area was influenced by German cuisine. In Cincinnati, there are many restaurants in particular that serve Bavarian food. In the Cincinnati metropolitan area, Getta, a German immigrant-derived sausage flavored with herbs such as Lorie, Rosemary, and Time, is often eaten as breakfast, in addition to salt and pepper, made from pork ground meat (or ground beef pork) and oats. Additionally, Cincinnati's October Fest is one of the largest places other than the home of Munich, with more than 600,000 visitors during the event.
Cincinnati is geographically located on the border of the area where North American and Central American English are spoken. On the other hand, unlike other parts of the Midwest, English vowels spoken in the southwestern part of Ohio, including Cincinnati, are being influenced by English in the northern part of New Jersey, but the trend is gradually declining among the younger generation. The English language of Cincinnati is also influenced by Southern American English, found in Kentucky.
The influence of German immigrants in Cincinnati also appears in the dialect. For example, if you ask for the same thing to be repeated, the standard English would ask I beg your pardon, but some residents of Cincinnati would ask Please? This is derived from bitte, an abbreviation for Wie bitte? (equivalent to How please? in English) in German. This trend is especially common among the residents of the western part of the city.
The population of each of the counties that form the metropolitan area of Cincinnati and the metropolitan area is as follows (Census of the United States of 2010).
- Cincinnati metropolitan area
- Cincinnati-Wilmington-Maysville metropolitan area
|Metropolitan/Small Metropolitan Area||county||State||population|
|Cincinnati metropolitan area||2,137,667|
|Wilmington metro||Clinton County||Ohio||42,040|
|Maysville metro||Mason County||Kentucky||17,490|
urban population transition
The population transition from 1800 to 2010 in Cincinnati City is shown below in a chart and chart.
Cincinnati has a sister-city relationship with the following nine cities. It is a member of the Sister Cities International Association of America.
- Amman (Jordan)
- Gifu City (Japan, Gifu Prefecture)
- Xinbei (Republic of China)
- Nancy, France
- Harare (Zimbabwe)
- Harkiu (Ukraine)
- Mysore, India
- Munich, Germany
- Yanzhou City (Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China)
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- ^ a b Table 8. Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1850. U.S. Bureau of the Census. June 15, 1998.
- ^ a b Table 18. Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1950. U.S. Bureau of the Census. June 15, 1998.
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It ranked 129th in the 2015 edition (published in 2014).
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It was ranked fifth in the 2015 edition (published in 2014).
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In the 2015 edition (published in 2014), it ranked seventy-sixth.
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- City of Cincinnati - Official City Site
- Cincinnati Parks
- Greater Cincinnati Convention & Visitors Bureau
- Cincinnati USA: Official Visitors and Tourist Site
- Adelina Patti and Oscar Wilde in Cincinnati 1882
- Cincinnati, Ohio - City-Data.com
- Cincinnati, OH - Yahoo!Map Map